As a _ , I want to _ so that _
1 Functional Requirements 功能性需求
1.1. Take a thin slice through the workflow; or do beginning and end of the workflow first and then the middle of the flow. 先從工作流中剝離出薄薄的一層進行開發；或者先完成工作流的頭尾部分，然後再完成中間步驟。
As an Amazon user, I can buy a book online so that I can buy book everywhere.
· As a Amazon user, I can search for a book so that I can buy it
· As a Amazon user, I can pick book into shopping cart so that I can pay for it later
· As a Amazon user, I can review my shopping cart so that I can change my mind
· As a Amazon user, I can check out shopping cart so that I can ask for delivery
· As a Amazon user, I can pay with PayPal so that I can easily transfer my money to Amazon
1.2. Split multiple operations in the story into separate stories. (e.g. story about managing or configuring or CRUD) 按照多個操作分離成不同的用戶故事（例如，關於”管理”、”配置”或”CRUD”(Create / Read / Update / Delete)的故事）
As a iPhone user, I can manage my contacts so that I can keep in touch with my friends.
· As a iPhone user, I can browse my contacts so that I can see who are in my contacts
· As a iPhone user, I can delete a contact so that I can shorten the list
· As a iPhone user, I can create a contact so that I can remember my friend’s phone number
· As a iPhone user, I can edit my contacts so that I can remember my friend’s new phone number
· As a iPhone user, I can share my contacts so that others can get this information easily
1.3. Do a subset of the business rules first and enhance with additional rules later. (e.g. a domain term in the story like flexible dates that suggest several variations?) 先完成業務規則的一部分，然後再進一步增添其他規則（例如，包含的領域術語”彈性日期”的故事暗示著多種變化）
As a Aeroplane Chess player, I can move my spawn in order to play
· As a Aeroplane Chess player, I can only start moving my spawn when roll a 6
· As a Aeroplane Chess player, I can move my spawn according to the roll
· As a Aeroplane Chess player, I can move my spawn thru shortcut when it stop at the teleporter
· As a Aeroplane Chess player, I should move my spawn backward when meet the end point
As a JIRA admin, I can see permission of all users
· As a JIRA admin, I can see permission of individual so that I can join him to a project
· As a JIRA admin, I can see permission of project member so that I can ensure proper authorization for projects
· As a JIRA admin, I can see visitor permission so that I can release temporary access in time
1.4. Process one kind of data first and then the other variations later with same operations. 先處理一類資料，然後再處理基於相同操作的其他類型的資料。
As a online banking user, I want to transfer my money so that I can make transactions everywhere
· As a online bank user, I can transfer money to my own accounts
· As a online bank user, I can transfer money to other bank account
· As a online bank user, I can make international transfer
· As a online bank user, I can pay bills
1.5. Handle data from one I/O channel first and enhance with the others that handle the same kind of data later. 先處理來自某一個管道的資料，然後再關注處理同質資料的其他管道。
As a citizen, I can view PM2.5 rating from all the data publishers so that I can get an average assessment.
· As a citizen, I can view PM2.5 rating from U.S. Embassy.
· As a citizen, I can view PM2.5 rating from National Meteorological Centre.
1.6. Split for different roles. 按照不同的角色來分解。
As a WebEx user, I can schedule a meeting so that I can connect to my colleagues
· As a mobile WebEx user, I can schedule a meeting with iPhone so that I can take a walk during the meeting
· As a desktop WebEx user, I can schedule a meeting with desktop browser so that I can get full features of a meeting
As a user, I can login to the online store
· As consumer user, I can login to go shopping.
· As admin user, I can login to manage the big data.
1.7. Strip low priority from high priority. 將低優先順序與高優先順序需求分離。
As a user, I’m required to log into the system so that I can access the system.
· As a user, I can login into system with correct username and password so that I can access the system
· As a user, I want to be frozen access for logging in with invalid password three times.
· As a frozen user, I want to be sent an email notifying a malicious attempt was made.
2 Non-Functional Requirements 非功能性需求
2.1. Make it work first and cross-cutting concerns to reduce the complexity. Such as Performance, Conceptual Integrity, Reusability, Availability, Interoperability, Manageability, Scalability, Security, Supportability, Testability, Usability, Maintainability, Auditability and Reliability. 使軟體先工作起來，推遲跨領域的關注點，包括性能、概念完整性、再使用性、可用性、互通性、可管理性、可伸縮性、安全性、可支援性、可測性、易用性、可維護性、可審計性、可靠性。
[Performance] As a new user, I want to be able to login to the system and join the meeting quickly when I use it first time so that others don’t need to wait for me.
· As a new user, I want to be able to login to the system and join the meeting.
· As a new user, I should complete application downloading within 20 seconds.
[Manageability] As a privileged user, I can see restricted search results so that I can make sure information confidential
· As a privileged user, I can see all search results.
· As a privileged user, I can see restricted search results that authorized to me
[Security] As an online bank user, I want to add payee so that I can pay to it.
· As an online bank user, I want to get current payee list
· As an online bank user, I want to add a payee
· As an online bank user, I want to conduct RSA token authentication before adding a payee
[Security] As an attacker, I must not be able to inject SQL with malicious statement.
[Availability] As an operator, I want the system switch over automatically when alarm 1234 raised so that I can continue my business.
[Interoperability] As a user, I want to log in to system with my account.
· As a user, I can sign up to acquire an application account.
· As a user, I can login with my application account.
· As a user, I want to use OpenID as my user identity to login to system, so that I can use my existing accounts of OpenID service provider and don’t need register a new proprietary user account.
[Usability] As a user, I want to start a Webex meeting.
· As a user, I want to start a Webex meeting.
· As a user, I want to start a Webex meeting via a one-click-start tool.
3 Technical Constraints 技術約束
3.1. Evolve architecture design. 進化架構設計
As a client, I can read data from data source.
· As a client, I can connect to JSON file to read data.
· As a client, I can connect to Mysql database to read data.
3.2. Bypass the real external systems first with dummy / fake / stub / mock. 利用仿製品/打樁等先繞過真實的外部系統
As a client, I want to integrated with PayPal interface so that to pay the bill
· As a client, I can pay via a fake PayPal interface that returns “successful”
· As a client, I can pay via a fake PayPal interface that returns “insufficient balance”
· As a client, I can pay via real PayPal interface
4 Spike 尖刺
4.1. Separate simple/complex, do the core first that provides most of the value and/or learning and enhance it with later stories. 區分簡單與複雜，先完成提供最多價值或知識的核心部分，以及解決最嚴重的阻礙，澄清需求和約束，然後再進一步完善。
As a user, I can search for game cards and see result grid in same screen.
· As a user, I can search cards with title and text and see total amount found so that I know searching is done
· As a user, I can see result grid so that I can see detailed result
· As a user, I can search with criteria including sets, types, houses, abilities so that I can make advanced searching
4.2. Setting up infrastructure component can be verified alone. 搭建基礎設施元件的工作可以被獨立驗證。
I want to setup Weblogic environment in order to deploy backend services on that.
4.3. Can you do some trace bullet such as mockup / experiment / simulation / prototype to evaluate the new tool / framework / language/ algorithm within a time-box within a time-box to see what can be achieved? 你是否可以在時間盒內做些端到端的概念驗證，比如模型/實驗/類比/原型等，來評估一下新工具、框架、語言、演算法，並看看所取得的效果？
I want to do a POC with Robot Framework for automation test in 10 days, in order to see whether it suitable for current project and developers’ skills
I want to compare the pros and cons between Maven and Ant in 5 days, so that we can decide which to use in the coming project.
As a client, I want to connect to “component X” which is ported from legacy system to new system in order to keep the interface unchanged
· Collect all messages from/to “component X” monitored on legacy system to understand the behavior first
· Next step…
Evaluate the split 評估分解的成果
· Do each of the stories satisfies INVEST? 每個用戶故事都符合INVEST嗎？
· Are the new stories roughly equal in size? 新的故大小是否基本一致？
· Is each story about 1/10 to 1/6 of your velocity? 每個故事大小都在你的速率的1/10到1/6之間嗎？
· Are there stories you can deprioritize or delete? 這些故事可以被丟棄嗎？
· Is there an obvious story to start with that gets you early value, learning, risk mitigation, etc.? 哪個故事明顯可以先開始，從而帶給你早期價值、學習、緩解風險嗎？
Reference: Good user stories satisfy INVEST 參考: 好的用戶故事滿足INVEST
· Independent: The user story should be self-contained, in a way that there is no inherent dependency on another user story. 獨立的：用戶故事應該是獨立的，沒有對於其他用戶故事的內在依賴。
· Negotiable: User stories, up until they are part of iteration, can always be changed and rewritten. 可協商的：用戶故事在進入反覆運算之前，都可以進行變更和重寫。
· Valuable: A user story must deliver value to the end user. 有價值的：用戶故事必須向最終用戶交付價值。
· Estimable: You must always be able to estimate the size of a user story. 可估算的：用戶故事的大小必須總是可以估算的。
· Small: User stories should not be so big as to become impossible to plan/task/prioritize with a certain level of certainty. 尺寸小：用戶故事不應該過大，以至於無法在一定的確定性下進行計畫、分派和排列優先順序。
· Testable: The user story or its related description must provide the necessary information to make test development possible. 可測試的：使用者故事及其相關的描述必須提供必要資訊，允許對開發進行測試。
Reference: 3C of User Story 參考: 使用者故事的3C特徵
· Card: stories are traditionally written on note cards, and these cards can be annotated with extra details. 卡片：習慣上將故事寫在便條卡片上，這些卡片可以標注額外的細節。
· Conversation: details behind the story come out through conversations with the Product Owner. 交談：與產品負責人的交談中產生故事背後的細節。
· Confirmation: acceptance tests confirm the story is finished and working as intended. 確認：使用接受度測試來確認故事的完成和符合工作要求。
I typically prefer to have smaller stories. In this case, instead of having one CRUD story, I would have one for Read, another for Create/Update and a story for Delete.
Here is an example.
As a online store owner, I want to Create / Read / Update / Delete products so that I can offer my customers the top rated products
Instead of having this CRUD story, I split it like this (I will add a few sample tasks for making it more illustrative):
As a online store owner, I want to Read (view) my products so that I can review what is current available on my site
- Create DB table
- Populate table with a few sample data
- Create select DB script
- Create for viewing my products
- Create automated functional tests for viewing functionality
As a online store owner, I want to Create / Update a product so that I can offer my customers the top rated products
- Create insert / update DB script
- Create UI for create / update a product
- Create automated functional tests for adding product functionality
- Create automated functional tests for updating product functionality
As a online store owner, I want to Delete a product so that I can offer my customers the top rated products
Create DB table for deleted products
- Create delete DB operation
- Create UI for deleting a product
- Create automated functional tests for the delete functionality